Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress. Many antioxidants under certain conditions in the body can become harmful pro-oxidants and cause additional oxidation in the body. This can occur when antioxidants become exhausted after containing single free radicals. In multiple studies, astaxanthin has shown never to become a pro-oxidant unlike common anti-oxidants such as vitamin C and E.
For more information on Astaxanthin here is a video of Dr Mercola interviewing an expert on Astaxanthin, Dr Rob Corish.
To view the research on Astaxanthin, please view our library of papers
Guerin, Martin, Mark E. Huntley, and Miguel Olaizola. “Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition.TRENDS in Biotechnology 21.5 (2003): 210-216.
Katagiri, Mikiyuki, et al. “Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 51.2 (2012): 102
Nakagawa, Kiyotaka, et al. “Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.”British Journal of Nutrition 105.11 (2011): 1563-1571.
Liu, Xuebo, and Toshihiko Osawa. “Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food.” (2009): 129-135. (2009): 129-135.
Kidd, Parris. “Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential.” Altern Med Rev 16.4 (2011): 355-64..
Parisi, Vincenzo, et al. “Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year.” Ophthalmology 115.2 (2008): 324-333.
Martin, H. D., et al. “Chemistry of carotenoid oxidation and free radical reactions.” Pure and applied chemistry 71.12 (1999): 2253-2262.
Tominaga, Kumi, et al. “Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects.” Acta Biochimica Polonica 59.1 (2012): 43.
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